Note: this post was written in 2010, it no longer works in the latest version of Firefox.
I’ve been teaching myself to write Firefox extensions for the last few weeks, and became interested in XPCOM components. Unfortunately, I couldn’t find a good (and recent) summary of them, and had to spend 3 or 4 days cobbling together various tutorials, so I figured it’s time to write one.
What is XPCOM?
XPCOM is a language-agnostic communication platform used in Mozilla products (and some other random pieces of software) to allow code (specifically extensions) to be written in a wide variety of languages.
Why would I want to use XPCOM?
var bmarks = Components.classes["@mozilla.org/browser/bookmarks-service;1"].getService(); bmarks.QueryInterface(Components.interfaces.nsIBookmarksService); bmarks.addBookmarkImmediately("http://www.mozilla.org","Mozilla",0,null);
There are plenty of tutorials on doing this as it is the more common use for XPCOM, so I won’t go into any detail on it here.
The second way is to write an XPCOM service. That is what this tutorial covers. Sometimes you need extra functionality, speed, or just want to tie into some library that requires a different language. Most commonly this is C++, but there is also JavaXPCOM and PyXPCOM (and probably a few others). I’ll be talking about C++, since it’s what I needed for my project.
- There is something called ctypes coming to FF 3.7 that may make doing this a lot easier. I haven’t touched this at all, but it may be worth considering if you can wait for the functionality and only need to tie into a particular DLL for some functionality. Long story short, XPCOM may become the more difficult way to call C++ functions from FF extensions.
- Windows 7
- Visual C++ Express 2008 (free from Microsoft’s website)
- Firefox 3.6 (Gecko 1.9.2)
- A UUID or GUID generator. This is a unique (read: random) ID that identifies your app to the world. Windows and Linux have tools to generate this (guidgen & uuidgen, respectively), or you can find various online generators (Mozilla links to several). I recommend this one since it gives you the C++ encoded form too, which you will need. You need two different UUIDs: one for your interface and one for your component.
- Ability to read and understand C++
If you don’t want to go through the tutorial and just want everything to work, then download this sample code. Just follow step #1 of the tutorial, then make sure your Gecko SDK directory is set right in the build step, and you can breeze on by most of this article.
This is mostly paraphrased from Alex Sirota’s great tutorial, but it hasn’t been updated since 2005 and is a bit outdated. This new one should work out of the box for FF 3.6.
This tutorial will create a component called MyComponent with one function: Add, which will take 2 numbers and, surprisingly, return the sum.
- Download the Gecko SDK for your version of Firefox. I used 1.9.2 for FF 3.6.
- Create an idl file — IMyComponent.idl, with the following (replacing ***IUID*** with your interface UUID):
This file is a language-agnostic interface definition which you can read more about here.
- Generate the interface header and typelib files out of the interface definition file. Assuming you extracted the Gecko SDK to C:\xulrunner-sdk\, run the following commands (from the directory you saved IMyComponent.idl to):
C:\xulrunner-sdk\sdk\bin\xpidl.exe -m header -I C:\xulrunner-sdk\idl .\IMyComponent.idl C:\xulrunner-sdk\sdk\bin\xpidl.exe -m typelib -I C:\xulrunner-sdk\idl .\IMyComponent.idl
These will create IMyComponent.h and IMyComponent.xpt, respectively.
- IMyComponent.h has two snippits of code that you can use for the next two files. Everything between /* Header file */ and /* Implementation file */ can be used for MyComponent.h:
- Everything between /* Implementation file */ and /* End of implementation class template. */ can be used for MyComponent.cpp:
- Create your module definitions files:
You now have all of the files needed to build an XPCOM component:
IMyComponent.h IMyComponent.idl IMyComponent.xpt MyComponent.cpp MyComponent.h MyComponentModule.cpp
Now comes the hard part: getting the damn thing to build.
Building the code
Ok, it’s actually not hard since I’ve done most of the legwork for you. Assuming you’re using Visual C++ 2008 here are the settings you need (again assuming C:\xulrunner-sdk is where your Gecko SDK is). In Project->Properties:
Configuration Properties General Configuration Type: .dll C/C++ General Additional Include Directories: C:\xulrunner-sdk\include Preprocessor Preprocessor Definitions: XP_WIN;XP_WIN32;XPCOM_GLUE_USE_NSPR Linker General Additional Library Directories: C:\xulrunner-sdk\lib Input Additional Dependencies: nspr4.lib xpcom.lib xpcomglue_s.lib
If you put the idl file into your project, be sure to mark it “Excluded from Build” in its properties…we don’t want VS touching it.
Cross your fingers, pray to whatever deity you believe in, and hit the build button. If it didn’t work let me know why in the comments and I’ll try to build a troubleshooting section.
Installing/Testing the Code
- Copy two files to C:\Program Files\Mozilla Firefox\components: The DLL the build generated & IMyComponent.xpt
- Normally, if this was installed as part of an extension, it would automatically search this directory and find these files. But now we have to force a refresh. Delete xpti.dat. and compreg.dat from your profile directory (FF will regenerate them on next restart)
- Close Firefox and open it with this test file (MyComponentTest.html in the sample code):
- One last time: cross your fingers, pray to whatever deity you believe in, and hit the Go button. If it didn’t work let me know why in the comments and I’ll try to build a troubleshooting section.
Hopefully this clears up what looked like a lot of confusion to me. I will keep this updated to the best of my abilities and hopefully it will continue to be useful for a long time.